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Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Computer Sciences

Publication Details

SN Computer Science 5, 410. © The Author(s) 2024


Quantum computing (QC) is an emerging area that yearly improves and develops more advances in the number of qubits and the available infrastructure for public users. Nowadays, the main cloud service providers (CSP) are implementing different mechanisms to support access to their quantum computers, which can be used to perform small experiments, test hybrid algorithms and prove quantum theories. Recent research work have discussed the low capacity of using quantum computers in a single CSP to perform quantum computation that are needed to solve different experiments for real world problems. Thus, there are needs for computing powers in the form of qubits from multi-cloud environment. Quantum computing in a multi-cloud environment requires security of the communicating channels. A well known algorithm in quantum cryptography for this purpose is the quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol. This enables the sender and receiver of a message to know when a third party eavesdropped any data from the insecure quantum channel. To address the low capacity issue, this research develops and tests the use of heterogeneous quantum computers located on different CSP to distribute quantum calculations between them by leveraging the channel security provided by the QKD protocol. The achieved results show over 88.1% of correct distributed quantum computation results without error correction methods, 96.8% of correct distributed quantum computation results using error correction methods and over 98.8% correct authorisation detection in multi-cloud environments. This demonstrates that quantum calculations can be distributed between different CSP while securing the channel with the QKD protocol at the same time.