Multiple Myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma cell malignancy with a complex and incompletely understood molecular pathogenesis. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (MGUS) and Smouldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) precede MM, with variable risks and rates of disease progression. The continuing high relapse and death rate in MM cases has prompted research into more accurate prognostic markers to predict progression from MGUS and SMM to MM, as well as identify MM cases with aggressive disease, in order to begin early, targeted and effective therapeutic intervention. Many studies have focused on utilising current markers more effectively, including M-protein, serum-free light chain ratio, circulating tumour cells and immunophenotyping of plasma cells. Gene expression profiling and next generation sequencing are coming to the forefront of risk-stratification and therapeutic-response prediction. Incorporation and consensus of prognostic markers into the routine diagnostic workup of patients will allow for the use of personalized, biologically-based treatments with superior patient outcome.
McMonagle, Róisín C.
"The Use of Prognostic Markers to Predict Disease Progression and Clinical Outcome in Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance, Smouldering Multiple Myeloma and Multiple Myeloma.,"
International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences: Vol. 3:
1, Article 8.
Available at: https://sword.cit.ie/iujhs/vol3/iss1/8
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