Worldwide, thyroid cancer is the 8th most common malignancy (3rd most common in women) and in recent years, there has been increased incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide. There is currently said to be a of thyroid nodules as of 2022. When it comes to the management of indeterminate thyroid nodules, clinical decision making can be challenging.

Thyroseq V3 testing may be used to determine the percentage probability of a thyroid nodule of being either malignant or benign, through a complex algorithm with next generation sequencing techniques, currently testing is done in the University of Pittsburgh and therefore is a referral test. This testing will reduce the number of superfluous thyroidectomies (up to 67% reduction according to independent studies) and active surveillance patients. Most importantly, this test can put the patient at ease with a definitive diagnosis offering the patient the most personalised management for thyroid nodules. It would also avoid permanent hormone replacement therapy for patients post-operatively.

Patient awareness of ThyroSeq V3 testing has been heightened in recent years and hence the demand for this test to be financed under the HSE has never been more evident. Currently, the test is funded by the patient, and it is expensive. This novel Next Generation Sequencing technology could be adapted to the recently installed NGS system in Cork University Hospital as the testing is currently being carried in the University of Pittsburgh. This literature review will examine whether Thyroseq V3 has a role in thyroid cancer management and if it should be included in the public health system in Ireland. This literature review will examine thyroid nodules, current management of such nodules and ThyroSeq V3 (clinical utility, diagnostic performance, feasibility and limitations).