SARS Co-V2 virus outbreak has resulted in a worldwide pandemic causing the death of approximately 5 million across the globe. The virus particle is transmitted via air droplets or by direct contact with surfaces. Infected individuals may present with moderate flu-like symptoms or may remain asymptomatic. While most cases of SARS Co-V2 resolve, some patients may progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome. The onset of ARDS is associated with a broad range of complications leading to increased morbidity and mortality. Sepsis induced coagulopathy is a clinically significant complication associated with the development of ARDS. Approximately 3% of Covid-19 patients will progress to disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, characterised by widespread hypercoagulation. The pathogenesis of coagulopathy is inflammatory mediated and is associated with mass accumulation of cytokines as seen in cytokine storms.
The aim of this literature is to evaluate the prognostic capability of haematological parameters in SARS Co-V2 infection. While there is no definitive haematological pattern, the effect of SARS Co-V2 infection on routine haematological tests is well documented. Approximately 80% of SARS Co-V2 patients present with lymphocytopenia, which may be accompanied by inflammatory related alterations in the cellular population.Covid-19 induced coagulopathy can be monitored using routine coagulation parameters. Poor prognostic outcomes are associated with elevations in prothrombin time, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, and D-dimer concentration. The degree of inflammatory mediated dysplasia seen in blood film examination may be used to assess magnitude of immune system dysregulation and severity of respiratory distress. A panhaemocyometric approach examining leucocytes, erythrocytes and thrombocytes is advisable considering SARS Co-V2 infection causes widespread alterations in cellular morphology and number in cell populations.
"Haematological tests: important tools for Covid-19 prognosis?,"
International Undergraduate Journal of Health Sciences: Vol. 2:
1, Article 3.
Available at: https://sword.cit.ie/iujhs/vol2/iss1/3