Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Organisation & Professional Development

First Advisor

Dr. Margaret Linehan


This thesis focuses on inclusion, national culture and Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB) in the Irish healthcare sector. Due to the high number of migrant nurses employed in the sector, the level of understaffing and subsequent requirement for effective performance and behaviours, the Irish healthcare sector was chosen as the primnary focus for the research. In particular, the study draws on in-depth interviews undertaken with 37 nurses and midwives, from four cultures, currently employed in hospitals in Cork. Analysis of the interviews resulted in the identification of a number of findings. One significant finding concerns the identification of a set of behaviours, termed Profession Induced Organizational Citizenship Behaviours (PIOCHs). These behaviours refer to a set of OCBs stemming from a profession-orientation, with a particular focus on clients, in this case patients, as beneficiaries rather than on the organization. A related finding extends an existing category of OCB. Specifically, the categorisation of Helping Behaviours has been extended, and termed Organizational Centric Helping Behaviours. These behaviours are helping in origin as per the original dimension, but carry an element of necessity. This element of necessity, however, does not automatically carry the same negative connotations of forced or compulsory OCBs. A third salient finding from the interviews highlighted a culture of nursing. This suggests that a profession-oriented culture may take precedence over both national and organizational culture. In addition, a high degree of focus on the client/patient was evident, which is considered to partly contribute to the undertaking of the sets of behaviours identified in this study. A fourth and significant finding demonstrates the relative unimportance of culture-of-origin culture, yet the importance of inclusion, for the undertaking of OCBs. Finally, and importantly, a culture of nursing and organizational culture generally are far more influential than country-of-origin culture

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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