Document Type


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Civil and Environmental Engineering | Engineering

Publication Details

Building and Environment, vol 235.


Wind-driven single-sided ventilation is present in many existing buildings globally, and its performance can be unreliable and challenging to improve. To address these performance challenges, a better understanding of the interconnected relationship between the external and internal flows is required. Therefore, a detailed assessment of this type of natural ventilation is vital. A detailed CFD analysis of wind-dominant single-sided natural ventilation is presented by adopting the Large Eddy Simulation method, validated using previous wind tunnel studies. An isolated cube, representing a three-storey building, was used to investigate four case studies with different opening positions on the building façade. The presence of parallel flow near the building façade and the effect this has, both on the structure of the flow at the opening and the internal secondary flow, is investigated. Results demonstrate that a mixing layer jet of air is the main structure of the flow at the opening. The flow characteristics of this jet are a function of how the external near-façade flow interacts with the building. It can be deflected or attenuated by the near-façade fluctuating pressure and vortex structures close to the opening. Tracer gas decay results show that only 3/5 of the flow at the opening contributes to effective ventilation in this type of natural ventilation. Comparisons between the ventilation rates for openings at different positions on the building façade demonstrate the importance of the pressure role at the opening in single-sided natural ventilation.