Document Type


Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Publication Details

This article belongs to the Special Issue Factors Affecting the Composition and Quality of Milk and Dairy Products.


In recent years, chlorate has become a residue of concern internationally, due to the risk that it poses to thyroid gland function. However, little is known about its occurrence in dairy products of Irish origin. To address this, a study was conducted in which samples of milk (n = 317), cream (n = 199), butter (n = 178), cheese (n = 144) and yoghurt (n = 440) were collected from grocery stores in the Republic of Ireland. Sampling was conducted across spring, summer, autumn and winter of 2021. Samples from multiple manufacturers of each respective dairy product were procured and analysed for chlorate using UPLC-MS/MS. Chlorate was detected in milk, cream, natural, blueberry, strawberry and raspberry yoghurts. Mean chlorate levels detected in these products were 0.0088, 0.0057, 0.055, 0.067, 0.077 and 0.095 mg kg−1, respectively. Chlorate was undetected in butter and cheese (<0.01 mg kg−1). All products sampled, except yoghurt, were found to be compliant with the EU limit for chlorate in milk (0.10 mg kg−1). Some manufacturers produced product with greater incidence and levels of chlorate. Chlorate levels from samples tested at different times of the year did not differ significantly, with the exception of strawberry and raspberry yoghurts which had higher chlorate levels in the winter period.