Document Type



Civil and Environmental Engineering | Construction Engineering and Management | Structural Engineering

Publication Details

Construction and Building Materials

This is the accepted version or post-print of the article published in Construction and Building Materials. The published version can be found here:


Binders manufactured using a blend of gypsum, ground granulated blast furnace slag and Portland cements are technically viable and possess considerable environmental and economic advantages when compared to binders manufactured using Portland cement alone. As such, the evaluation of binders made from these materials offers a promising research focus in the quest to produce technically sound, environmental and economical binders for specialist uses as an alternative to traditional concrete binders of higher carbon footprint. The aim of the test programme was to investigate the viability of a series of binders designed to fulfil particular user needs while having significantly decreased carbon footprints.

Two distinct series of binders were designed; the dominant ingredient in the first was calcium sulfate while in the second it was ggbs. Potential applications for both series of binders were considered and the strength development of each binder was analysed. In addition, the effect of water on the gypsum-based binders was analysed, as was the sulfate resistance of the ggbs-based binder.

The results of the laboratory tests carried out were varied. For the calcium sulfate-based binders, those manufactured using anhydrite II as the dominant ingredient were found to achieve highest strengths. However these binders were found to be particularly susceptible to moisture-induced deterioration. For the ggbs-based binders, it was found that the early strength development was improved by the addition of small quantities of anhydrite II and gypsum. The strengths and sulfate resistance at later ages remained unaffected. These binders may have significant potential in situations where early strength development is a requirement.